Aristotle by Otfried HöffeA comprehensive introduction to the life and work of Aristotle.Aristotle belongs to the small class of philosophers who were not only influential in a particular field of philosophy but also shaped the profile of every philosophical discipline. In this book Otfried Höffe provides a comprehensive introduction to the life and work of Aristotle, covering well-known Aristotelian topics such as ethics, politics, and metaphysics as well as the less familiar, such as biology, psychology, and rhetoric. Höffe also compares Aristotle to other major figures in the history of European (especially German) philosophy, making connections to Kant and Hegel that are particularly insightful. A picture of Aristotle emerges as a philosopher who is much more modern than previously thought, one whose writings are still relevant today and continue to make valuable contributions to many contemporary philosophical debates.
Aristotle: His Life and School by Carlo NataliThe definitive account of Aristotle's life and schoolThis definitive biography shows that Aristotle's philosophy is best understood on the basis of a firm knowledge of his life and of the school he founded. First published in Italian, and now translated, updated, and expanded for English readers, this concise chronological narrative is the most authoritative account of Aristotle's life and his Lyceum available in any language. Gathering, distilling, and analyzing all the evidence and previous scholarship, Carlo Natali, one of the world's leading Aristotle scholars, provides a masterful synthesis that is accessible to students yet filled with evidence and original interpretations that specialists will find informative and provocative.Cutting through the controversy and confusion that have surrounded Aristotle's biography, Natali tells the story of Aristotle's eventful life and sheds new light on his role in the foundation of the Lyceum. Natali offers the most detailed and persuasive argument yet for the view that the school, an important institution of higher learning and scientific research, was designed to foster a new intellectual way of life among Aristotle's followers, helping them fulfill an aristocratic ideal of the best way to use the leisure they enjoyed.
A Little History of Philosophy by Nigel WarburtonPhilosophy begins with questions about the nature of reality and how we should live. These were the concerns of Socrates, who spent his days in the ancient Athenian marketplace asking awkward questions, disconcerting the people he met by showing them how little they genuinely understood. This engaging book introduces the great thinkers in Western philosophy and explores their most compelling ideas about the world and how best to live in it.In forty brief chapters, Nigel Warburton guides us on a chronological tour of the major ideas in the history of philosophy. He provides interesting and often quirky stories of the lives and deaths of thought-provoking philosophers from Socrates, who chose to die by hemlock poisoning rather than live on without the freedom to think for himself, to Peter Singer, who asks the disquieting philosophical and ethical questions that haunt our own times.
Cicero by Zoe Lowery & Fiona ForsythMarcus Tullius Cicero, who lived from 106 BCE to 43 BCE, was a man who wore many hats: Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, and writer. He became the greatest orator in Rome's history and penned countless books and letters throughout his life, including speeches, lectures, and philosophical and political pieces. He was also a poet, although little of his verse exists today. But Cicero's life was far from the quiet, docile existence of a writer who kept to himself. His speeches often raised the hackles of his opponents and others with whom he disagreed, and he was exiled from Rome at one point.
Constantine the Emperor by David PotterNo Roman emperor had a greater impact on the modern world than did Constantine. The reason is not simply that he converted to Christianity, but that he did so in a way that brought his subjects along after him. Indeed, this major new biography argues that Constantine's conversion is but one feature of a unique administrative style that enabled him to take control of an empire beset by internal rebellions and external threats by Persians and Goths. The vast record of Constantine's administration reveals a government careful in its exercise of power but capable of ruthless, even savage, actions. Constantine executed (or drove to suicide) his father-in-law, two brothers-in-law, his eldest son, and his once beloved wife. An unparalleled general throughout his life, planning a major assault on the Sassanian Empire in Persia even on his deathbed. Alongside the visionary who believed that his success came from the direct intervention of his God resided an aggressive warrior, a sometimes cruel partner, and an immensely shrewd ruler. These characteristics combined together in a long and remarkable career, which restored the Roman Empire to its former glory. Beginning with his first biographer Eusebius, Constantine's image has been subject to distortion. More recent revisions include John Carroll's view of him as the intellectual ancestor of the Holocaust (Constantine's Sword) and Dan Brown's presentation of him as the man who oversaw the reshaping of Christian history (The Da Vinci Code). In Constantine the Emperor, David Potter confronts each of these skewed and partial accounts to provide the most comprehensive, authoritative, and readable account of Constantine's extraordinary life.
Consider searching Hernan* Corte* since they are also known as Hernan Cortez
The True History of The Conquest of New Spain by Bernal Diaz del Castillohis rugged new translation--the first entirely new English translation in half a century and the only one based on the most recent critical edition of the Guatemalan MS--allows Diaz to recount, in his own battle-weary and often cynical voice, the achievements, stratagems, and frequent cruelty of Hernando Cortes and his men as they set out to overthrow Moctezuma's Aztec kingdom and establish a Spanish empire in the New World.The concise contextual introduction to this volume traces the origins, history, and methods of the Spanish enterprise in the Americas; it also discusses the nature of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs in Mexico, and compares Diaz's version of events to those of other contemporary chroniclers. Editorial glosses summarize omitted portions, and substantial footnotes explain those terms, names, and cultural references in Diaz's text that may be unfamiliar to modern readers. A chronology of the Conquest is included, as are a guide to major figures, a select bibliography, and three maps.
A Journey with Hernán Cortés by Lisa L. OwensIn 1504 Hernán Cortés left Spain for the Caribbean. Once there, he was given land, a home, and a good job. Eventually, he was given the opportunity to explore Mexico, which led to his conquest of the Aztec Empire. How can we learn more about Cortés, his conquest, and the Aztec culture he tried to destroy? We have letters, maps, and journals written by Cortés and those who traveled with him. We also have Aztec artifacts and the stories of those he conquered. Follow Cortés on his expedition through Mexico and explore primary sources from his time to learn more.
Hernan Cortes by Kristin PetrieAn introduction to the life of Hernand Cortes, the Spanish explorer who discovered Baja California and explored the Pacific coast of Mexico, but who is best remembered for conquering the Aztec Empire.
Bárbaros : Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment by David J. WeberTwo centuries after Cortés and Pizarro seized the Aztec and Inca empires, Spain's conquest of America remained unfinished. Indians retained control over most of the lands in Spain's American empire. Mounted on horseback, savvy about European ways, and often possessing firearms, independent Indians continued to find new ways to resist subjugation by Spanish soldiers and conversion by Spanish missionaries.In this panoramic study, David J. Weber explains how late eighteenthcentury Spanish administrators tried to fashion a more enlightened policy toward the people they called bárbaros, or “savages.” Even Spain's most powerful monarchs failed, however, to enforce a consistent, well-reasoned policy toward Indians. At one extreme, powerful independent Indians forced Spaniards to seek peace, acknowledge autonomous tribal governments, and recognize the existence of tribal lands, fulfilling the Crown's oft-stated wish to use “gentle” means in dealing with Indians. At the other extreme the Crown abandoned its principles, authorizing bloody wars on Indians when Spanish officers believed they could defeat them. Power, says Weber, more than the power of ideas, determined how Spaniards treated “savages” in the Age of Enlightenment.
Henry VIII by J. J. ScarisbrickHenry VIII's forceful personality dominated his age and continues to fascinate our own. In few other reigns have there been developments of such magnitude—in politics, foreign relations, religion, and society—that have so radically affected succeeding generations. Above all the English Reformation and the break with Rome are still felt more than four centuries on.First published in 1968, J. J. Scarisbrick's Henry VIII remains the standard account, a thorough exploration of the documentary sources, stylishly written and highly readable.
The Battle for Joan by Frederick BrownAn essay is presented on heroine and Saint Joan of Arc. It mentions the reference of militant royalists and Catholics to her as a woman who bore the cross of Lorraine and the oriflamme of French Kings as well as the association of her victory over the English by republicans in their successful campaign of revolutionaries against the invasion of monarchy in France in 1792. It also notes the rejection of her beatification until 1909.
Joan of Arc by Herbert EngelhardtThe article discusses the life and martyrdom of St. Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans in France. Topics covered include her birth around 1412, her interaction with St. Michael the Archangel, St. Catherine and St. Margaret, her leading of the French resistance against the English in 1428, her capture and burning at the stake in 1431, and canonization as saint in 1920. The article urges the faithful to take courage from St. Joan's life in fighting the evil of abortion in America as of 2015.
Joan of Arc : The Early Debate by Deborah A. FraioliJoan of Arc arrived at the French court claiming to be sent by God to come to the aid of the dauphin Charles. Most studies of Joan focus on her political expediency, but the starting point of this book is her assertion that she was sent by God: it is the first real exploration of the application of the Catholic doctrine of discretio spirituum(the discernment of spirits) to her case, and of her reception as a visionary woman. The author examines contemporary theological documents which show genuine debate about Joan's mission and whether she was diabolically or divinely inspired, also taking into account the two major literary works dealing with her, Christine de Pizan's Ditie de Jehanne d'Arc and Martin Le Franc's Le champion des dames, as well as Joan's own letter to the English. Appendices offer translations of pertinent Latin and French texts.Professor DEBORAH FRAIOLI teaches in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at Simmons College, Boston.
Joan of Arc : By Herself and Her Witnesses by Regine PernoudUsing historical documents and translated by Régine Pernoud, Joan of Arc seeks to answer the questions asked by Joan's contemporaries as well as us: Who was she? Whence came she? What had been her life and exploits? First published in the United States in 1966 by Stein and Day, this book reveals the historical Joan, described in contemporary documents by her allies as well as her enemies.
JOAN OF ARC, THE CHURCH, AND THE PAPACY, 1429-1920 by Larissa Juliet TaylorIn modern times, Joan of Arc has been depicted as a victim of the medieval Church, a saint who has been used to justify various and opposing ideologies, or a feminist icon. The author argues against oversimplifications, for Joan lived in a political world of intrigue, court factions, and complex dynastic relationships that provided the backdrop for her military successes and the cause of her downfall. In her own time, Joan was viewed not as a saint, but first and foremost as a soldier and leader fighting for the French cause.
Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press by Diana ChildressCan one invention really change the world? Before the mid-fifteenth century, books were printed by hand, making them rare and expensive. Reading and learning remained a privilege of the wealthy—until Johannes Gutenberg developed a machine called the printing press. Gutenberg, a German metalworker, began in the 1440s by making movable type—small metal letters that were arranged to form words and sentences, replacing handwritten letters. Movable type fit into frames on the printing press, and the press then produced many copies of the same page. As movable type and the printing press made book production much faster and less expensive, reading material of all kinds became available to a far wider audience. In Gutenberg's time, Europe was already on the brink of a new age—an explosion of world exploration, scientific discoveries, and political and religious changes. Gutenberg's printing press helped propel Europe into the modern era, and his legacy remains in the thousands of books and newspapers printed each year to keep us informed, entertained, and connected. Indeed, Gutenberg's development of the printing press became one of history's pivotal moments.
How Invention Begins : Echoes of Old Voices in the Rise of New Machines by John H. LienhardIn How Invention Begins, Lienhard reconciles the ends of invention with the individual leaps upon which they are built, illuminating the vast web of individual inspirations that lie behind whole technologies. He traces, for instance, the way in which thousands of people applied their combined inventive genius to airplanes, railroad engines, and automobiles. As he does so, it becomes clear that a collective desire, an upwelling of fascination, a spirit of the times--a Zeitgeist--laid its hold upon inventors. The thing they all sought to create was speed itself. Likewise, Lienhard shows that when we trace the astonishingly complex technology of printing books, we come at last to that which we desire from books--the knowledge, the learning, that they provide. Can we speak of speed or education as inventions? To do so, he concludes, is certainly no greater a stretch than it is to call radio or the telephone an'invention.'Throughout this marvelous volume, Lienhard illuminates these webs of insight or inspiration by weaving a fabric of anecdote, history, and technical detail--all of which come together to provide a full and satisfying portrait of the true nature of invention.
Johann Gutenberg by Paul GrayFocuses on printer Johann Gutenberg, an important figure of the fifteenth century. Biographical and career information in Germany, including his work in a printing shop; His development of a mechanical printing press with the financial assistance of Johann Fust; His impact. INSETS: Untitled (Best of the century);Christopher Columbus;Joan of Arc.
Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World From Gutenberg to Gates by John W. KloosterThese two volumes provide in-depth coverage of 24 of history's most important inventors and their inventions.• 24 illustrations show each of the major inventions discussed• Sidebars covering related inventions are included with many of the entries• A list of works for further reading encourages students to learn more• In-depth biographies provide students with material for classroom assignments and reports
GUTENBERG AND MODERN CHINESE PRINT CULTURE by Christopher A. ReedThe article discusses the influence of Johann Gutenberg on the Western and Chinese print and publishing culture. It is stated the impact of the Gutenberg revolution on East Asia started in the early 1800s. The contributions of authors W. H. Medhurst, W. A. P. Martin and Edward Thomas Williams in the Christian printing and publishing in China are also discussed.
John Calvin: Comeback Kid by Timothy GeorgeThe article focuses on John Calvin, a French lawyer and theologian, and the renaissance of Calvinism. The author cites the role of Calvinism in shaping the contours of the contemporary world. The reason why the legacy of Calvin is ambiguous is mentioned. It notes that the sacredness of human life and the capacity of people made in the image of God to think, to know and to act with nobility are emphasized by Calvin. INSETS: The Reluctant Reformer;Calvin's Biggest Mistake.
Calvin by Bruce Gordon; C. Henry Gordon; F. Bruce GordonDuring the glory days of the French Renaissance, young John Calvin (1509-1564) experienced a profound conversion to the faith of the Reformation. For the rest of his days he lived out the implications of that transformation—as exile, inspired reformer, and ultimately the dominant figure of the Protestant Reformation. Calvin's vision of the Christian religion has inspired many volumes of analysis, but this engaging biography examines a remarkable life. Bruce Gordon presents Calvin as a human being, a man at once brilliant, arrogant, charismatic, unforgiving, generous, and shrewd. The book explores with particular insight Calvin's self-conscious view of himself as prophet and apostle for his age and his struggle to tame a sense of his own superiority, perceived by others as arrogance. Gordon looks at Calvin's character, his maturing vision of God and humanity, his personal tragedies and failures, his extensive relationships with others, and the context within which he wrote and taught. What emerges is a man who devoted himself to the Church, inspiring and transforming the lives of others, especially those who suffered persecution for their religious beliefs.
John Calvin: Pilgrim and Pastor by W. Robert GodfreyAn introduction to the essential life and thought of one of history's most influential theologians, who considered himself first and foremost a pilgrim and a pastor. July 10, 2009, marks the five-hundredth anniversary of the birth of John Calvin. As controversial as he was influential, his critics have named a judgmental and joyless attitude after him, while his admirers celebrate him as the principal theologian of Reformed Christianity. Yet his impact is unmistakable-a primary developer of western civilization whose life and work have deeply affected five centuries'worth of pastors, scholars, and individuals. What will surprise the readers of this book, however, is that Calvin did not live primarily to influence future generations. Rather, he considered himself first and foremost a spiritual pilgrim and a minister of the Word in the church of his day. It was from that'essential'Calvin that all his influence flowed. Here is an introduction to Calvin's life and thought and essence: a man who moved people not through the power of personality but through passion for the Word, a man who sought to serve the gospel in the most humble of roles.
Julius Caesar : A Life by Antony KammThis is a fresh account of Julius Caesar - the brilliant politician and intriguing figure who became sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar examines key figures such as Marius, Sulla, Cicero, Mark Antony, Gaius Octavius (emperor Augustus), Calpurnia and Cleopatra, as well as the unnamed warriors who fought for and against him, and politicians who supported and opposed him. Including new translations from classical sources, Antony Kamm sets Caesar's life against the historical, political and social background of the times and addresses key issues: Did Caesar destroy the Republic? What was the legality of his position and the moral justifications of his actions How good a general was he? What was his relationship with Cleopatra? Why was he assassinated? What happened next? This is Caesar – the lavish spender, the military strategist, a considerable orator and historical writer, and probably the most influential figure of his time - in all his historical glory. Students of Rome and its figures will find this an enthralling, eye-opening addition to their course reading.
Julius Caesar by Sarah Ann McGillPresents a biography of Roman ruler Julius Caesar. Background; Exile from Rome and abduction by pirates; Early political career as consul; Caesar's alliance with Crassus and Pompey, known as the first Triumverate; Power struggle with Pompey; Relationship with Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt; Details of the conspiracy, led by Senators Brutus and Longinus, to murder Caesar.
Roman Lives : A Selection of Eight Lives by Philip A. StadterMarcus Cato Sulla Aemilius Paullus Pompey The Gracchi Marius Julius Caesar Anthony'I treat the narrative of the Lives as a kind of mirror...The experience is like nothing so much as spending time in their company and living with them: I receive and welcome each of them in turn as my guest.'In the eight lives of this collection Plutarch introduces the reader to the major figures and periods of classical Rome. He portrays virtues to be emulated and vices to be avoided, but his purpose is also implicitly to educate and warn those in his own day who wielded power. In prose that is rich, elegant and sprinkled with learned references, he explores with an extraordinary degree of insight the interplay of character and political action. While drawing chiefly on historical sources, he brings to biography a natural story-teller's ear for a good anecdote. Throughout the ages Plutarch's Lives have been valued for their historical value and their charm. This new translation will introduce new generations to his urbane erudition. The most comprehensive selection available, it is accompanied by a lucid introduction, explanatory notes, bibliographies, maps and indexes. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.
Leonardo Da Vinci: Renaissance Artist and Inventor by Stephanie KuligowskiLeonardo da Vinci lived during the Italian Renaissance, a time of great ideas and innovation. This enlightening biography details da Vinci's early life, including his apprenticeship with artist Andrea del Verrocchio. Through detailed, stunning photos and images, easy-to-read text, and captivating facts, children will learn about some of da Vinci's greatest works of art, including The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa, and will discover how da Vinci perfectly embodied the spirit of the Renaissance. A glossary and index are provided to aid students in better understanding of the content and vocabulary. This book also includes an in-class activity to further students'understanding of one of da Vinci's inventions.
Mark Antony : A Plain Blunt Man by Paolo de RuggieroMark Antony was embroiled in the tumultuous events of the mid-1st century BC, which saw the violent transformation from the Roman Republic to the Roman Empire. After being defeated by Augustus he has often been characterized by hostile historians as a loyal henchman of his uncle Julius Caesar but without the guile and vision to attain greatness in his own right (hence Shakespeare casts him as a'plain, blunt man'whom Caesar's assassins don't think it worthwhile to kill). In his infamous alliance and love affair with Cleopatra of Egypt he is also often seen as duped and manipulated by a sharper mind. Despite this there is no doubt Antony was a capable soldier. He first saw action leading a cavalry unit in Judaea, before giving valuable service to Julius Caesar in Gaul. He again served with distinction and led Caesar's right wing at the climactic battle of Pharsalus, and he was decisive in the defeat of the conspirators at Philippi which ended 100 years of Civil wars. But Paolo de Ruggiero re-assesses this pivotal figure, analyses the arguments of his many detractors, and concludes that he was much more than a simple soldier, revealing a more complex and significant man, and a decisive agent of change with a precise political vision for the Roman world.
Mark Antony by Veronica LovedayPresents a biography of Roman ruler Mark Antony. Early military career; His loyalty to Julius Caesar; Rise to power in the confusion following Caesar's murder; Formation of the second Triumverate by Antony, Lepidus, and Caesar's heir, Octavius; Efforts to avenge Caesar's death; Details of his romantic relationship with Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt; Highlights of Antony's military campaigns against Syria; Octavius' attack on Antony in Egypt.
Martin Luther: A Reforming Spirit by Tamara HollingsworthIn the 1500s, a man named Martin Luther saw problems in the way the Roman Catholic Church was run. He argued against the teachings of the Church during a time when doing so was punishable by death. With this captivating biography, readers can learn about Martin Luther's courageous and honorable life as he fought against the Catholic church and ideals, and strived for Protestant Reformation. Through easy-to-read text, intriguing facts, and striking images, readers will be engaged while learning about concepts such as Luther's Ninety-Five Theses and the Black Cloister Monastery. This book also includes text features like a table of contents, glossary, and index, as well as an in-class writing activity to further students'understanding of Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses.
Martin Luther : A Concise History of His Life & Works by John SchofieldMartin Luther was so troubled by the sale of indulgences (pardons for sins granted by the Pope) that, in 1517, he nailed ninety-five theses to the doors of the church and the castle at Wittenberg. This act began one of the most momentous periods of change in history: the Reformation. So much has been written on Luther that anyone with no prior knowledge wishing to find out about him is bound to be confronted with the question'where do I start?'This book is an introduction, succinct and readable, but historically sound. It covers or summarises Luther's major works and the main events of his life. It invites the reader to meet him at his study desk, in the lecture hall, in the pulpit and at the dinner table. Based on Luther's own writings, the reader can be sure that this is the real Luther, the genuine article; not an account influenced by the author's own views or bias, but the actual man behind the arguments.
What Art Is by Arthur C. DantoWhat is it to be a work of art? Renowned author and critic Arthur C. Danto addresses this fundamental, complex question. Part philosophical monograph and part memoiristic meditation, What Art Is challenges the popular interpretation that art is an indefinable concept, instead bringing to light the properties that constitute universal meaning. Danto argues that despite varied approaches, a work of art is always defined by two essential criteria: meaning and embodiment, as well as one additional criterion contributed by the viewer: interpretation. Danto crafts his argument in an accessible manner that engages with both philosophy and art across genres and eras, beginning with Plato's definition of art in The Republic, and continuing through the progress of art as a series of discoveries, including such innovations as perspective, chiaroscuro, and physiognomy. Danto concludes with a fascinating discussion of Andy Warhol's famous shipping cartons, which are visually indistinguishable from the everyday objects they represent.Throughout, Danto considers the contributions of philosophers including Descartes, Kant, and Hegel, and artists from Michelangelo and Poussin to Duchamp and Warhol, in this far-reaching examination of the interconnectivity and universality of aesthetic production.
Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel by Andrew Graham-DixonYou cannot stand underneath the masterwork that is the Sistine Chapel without considering the genius and painstaking work that went into its creation. Michelangelo Buonarroti never wanted to paint the Sistine Chapel, though. Appointed by the temperamental Julius II, Michelangelo believed the suspiciously large-scale project to be a plot for failure conspired by his rivals and the'Warrior Pope.'After all, Michelangelo was not a painter—he was a sculptor. The noble artist reluctantly took on the daunting task that would damage his neck, back, and eyes (if you have ever strained to admire the real thing, you know). Andrew Graham-Dixon tells the story behind the famous painted ceiling over which the great artist painfully toiled for four long years. Linking Michelangelo's personal life to his work on the Sistine Chapel, Graham-Dixon describes Michelangelo's unique depiction of the Book of Genesis, tackles ambiguities in the work, and details the painstaking work that went into Michelangelo's magnificent creation. Complete with rich, full-color illustrations and Graham-Dixon's articulate narrative, Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel is an indispensable and significant piece of art criticism. It humanizes this heavenly masterpiece in a way that every art enthusiast, student, and professional can understand and appreciate.
Michelangelo by Eugène MüntzMichelangelo, like Leonardo, was a man of many talents; sculptor, architect, painter and poet, he made the apotheosis of muscular movement, which to him was the physical manifestation of passion. He moulded his draughtsmanship, bent it, twisted it, and stretched it to the extreme limits of possibility. There are not any landscapes in Michelangelo's painting. All the emotions, all the passions, all the thoughts of humanity were personified in his eyes in the naked bodies of men and women. He rarely conceived his human forms in attitudes of immobility or repose. Michelangelo became a painter so that he could express in a more malleable material what his titanesque soul felt, what his sculptor's imagination saw, but what sculpture refused him. Thus this admirable sculptor became the creator, at the Vatican, of the most lyrical and epic decoration ever seen: the Sistine Chapel. The profusion of his invention is spread over this vast area of over 900 square metres. There are 343 principal figures of prodigious variety of expression, many of colossal size, and in addition a great number of subsidiary ones introduced for decorative effect. The creator of this vast scheme was only thirty-four when he began his work. Michelangelo compels us to enlarge our conception of what is beautiful. To the Greeks it was physical perfection; but Michelangelo cared little for physical beauty, except in a few instances, such as his painting of Adam on the Sistine ceiling, and his sculptures of the Pietà. Though a master of anatomy and of the laws of composition, he dared to disregard both if it were necessary to express his concept: to exaggerate the muscles of his figures, and even put them in positions the human body could not naturally assume. In his later painting, The Last Judgment on the end wall of the Sistine, he poured out his soul like a torrent. Michelangelo was the first to make the human form express a variety of emotions. In his hands emotion became an instrument upon which he played, extracting themes and harmonies of infinite variety. His figures carry our imagination far beyond the personal meaning of the names attached to them.
Muhammad: Prophet of Islam by Jessica CohnThis enlightening biography introduces readers to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam. Readers will learn how he grew to become the founder of Islam and an important figure in the history of the world. The interesting facts, captivating images, maps, photos, and supportive text work together to engage readers as they learn about the Bedouins, Makkah, Qur'an, Hijrah, Sunnis, Shi'as, and how Muhammad urged people to follow his idea of monotheism. With text features such as a table of contents, glossary, and index, children will have all the tools they need to learn about Muhammad's incredible life! This book also includes an in-class activity to further students'understanding of the effects Muhammad's teachings had on life in the Arab world.
Muhammad and the Origins of Islam by F. E. PetersAn inquiry into the religious environment of the person Muslims hail as the “Envoy of God” and an attempt to trace his progress along the path from paganism to that distinctive form of monotheism called Islam.F. E. Peters is Professor and Chair of the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Literature and History at New York University's Near Eastern Center. He has written a number of books, including The Children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; Jerusalem; and Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: The Classical Texts and Their Interpretation. Most recently, he has published a three-volume history of Mecca and the celebrated Islamic pilgrimage called the Hajj.
Oliver Cromwell : The Man Who Refused to Be King by Bloch, Jonathan Beaud, Mathieu Neal, RebeccaKeen to learn but short on time? Get to grips with the life of Oliver Cromwell in next to no time with this concise guide.50Minutes.com provides a clear and engaging analysis of the life of Oliver Cromwell. In 1642, the established order in England was overturned when Parliament raised an army against King Charles I. The charismatic military and political leader Oliver Cromwell rose to prominence in the ensuing civil war, and took power once the conflict was over. This Puritanical ruler united the British Isles and increased British influence overseas, but his strict and often brutally repressive actions mean that he continues to divide opinion even today.In just 50 minutes you will:•Discover the reasons for the disagreements between King Charles I and his Parliament•Find out about the decisive role Cromwell played during English Civil War•Evaluate his leadership during the Commonwealth and Protectorate, and the legacy he left behindABOUT 50MINUTES.COM | History & Culture50MINUTES.COM will enable you to quickly understand the main events, people, conflicts and discoveries from world history that have shaped the world we live in today. Our publications present the key information on a wide variety of topics in a quick and accessible way that is guaranteed to save you time on your journey of discovery.
Oliver Cromwell by Graham D. GoodladThis book provides an up to date introduction to the main debates surrounding the career, achievements and legacy of Oliver Cromwell. It examines the factors that influenced Cromwell's evolution from fenland farmer to civil war general and national leader. It examines the following key issues: Why was Cromwell so successful as a military commander? Is it possible to defend the methods he used in his controversial campaign in Ireland? Was Cromwell motivated by ambition or by his religious convictions? Was the Protectorate nothing more than a military dictatorship? What was the nature of Cromwell's vision of religious freedom? Was Cromwell's foreign policy driven by religious ideology or by the national interest? Why has Cromwell been a source of enduring interest, both for historians and the wider public?
Plato by Robert HallFirst published in 1981 this unique study discusses the evolution of Plato's thought through the actual developments in Athenian democracy, the book also demonstrates Plato's continuing responses to changes in political theory and argues for a new understanding of Plato's goals for the state and his ultimate concern for the moral well-being of the citizens.
The Reign of Richard Lionheart : Ruler of The Angevin Empire, 1189-1199 by Ralph V. Turner & Richard HeiserThis ground-breaking and substantive new history considers Richard's reign from a perspective that is as much French as English. Viewing the king himself as a great military commander, it also shows him as a more competent administrator than previously acknowledged. Modern revisionist work allows the authors to correct many misconceptions about Richard's French possessions, and recent scholarship on his rival, Philip Augustus, permits examination of the formidable threat that the resurgent Capetian monarchy represented.
William Wallace: The Man and the Myth by Chris BrownWilliam Wallace of Elderslie, younger son of a country knight, came to fame through his active opposition to the aggressive imperialism of England's King Edward I. From political and social obscurity he seized control of the reins of government and became the first leader of his people in a war of liberation against a far larger and richer enemy – England – that would last for more than sixty years. With little or no experience in the business of government or of war, William Wallace was able to achieve command, but proved unable to retain it in the face of battlefield defeat. In this updated edition of his groundbreaking work, Chris Brown cuts through the myths still perpetuated today to produce a biography driven by contemporary medieval records rather than Victorian legends and present an accurate portrait of the life and career of Scotland's greatest hero.
The Hunt for William Wallace by Andrew FisherHighlights the public execution of Scottish hero William Wallace, an icon to Scottish resistance to the English rule in Scotland in the 1300s. Accusations against Wallace; Details of the Scottish Aristocratic rebellion in 1297; War strategy of Wallace against the English rule.